ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL

Senin, 01 November 2010
Tak seberapa dapat pendidikan formal, tetapi diajar baik oleh keluarganya dan belajar sendiri, begitulah ihwal Alexander Graham Bell tilpun yang dilahirkan tahun 1847 di Edinburg, Skotlandia. Minat Bell memproduksi kembali suara vokal timbul secara wajar ayahnya seorang ahli dalam hal fisiologi vokal, memperbaiki dan mengajar orang-orang tuli.
Bell pernah ke Boston, negara bagian Massachusetts tahun 1871. Di sanalah pada tahun 1875 dia membuat percobaan-percobaan yang mengarah pada penemuan tilpun. Dia mengumpulkan paten untuk mengokohkan penemuannya di bulan Februari 1876 dan mendapat imbalan beberapa minggu kemudian. (Menarik sekali untuk dicatat bahwa seorang lain bernama Elisha Gray juga mengumpulkan paten penemuan untuk pengokohan mengenai peralatan serupa pada hari yang berbarengan dengan apa yang diperbuat Bell, hanya selisih beberapa jam saja).
Tak lama sesudah patennya diterima, Bell mempertontonkan tilpun di 100 tahun kota Philadelphia. Penemuannya menarik perhatian besar publik dan mendapat penghargaan atas hasil karyanya. Tetapi, The Western Union Telegraph Company yang menawarkan uang sebesar $100.000 buat penemuan alat itu mengelak membayarnya. Karena itu, Bell dan kawan-kawannya, di bulan Juli 1877, mendirikan perusahaan sendiri, nenek moyang dari American Telephone and Telegraph Company sekarang. Tilpun dengan cepat dan besar-besaran mencapai sukses secara komersial. Sakarang ini AT & T merupakan perusahaan yang terbesar di dunia.
Bell dan istrinya yang di bulan Maret 1879 memegang 15 persen saham dari perusahaan itu tampaknya tak punya bayangan betapa akan fantastisnya keuntungan yang diterima oleh perusahaan itu. Dalam tempo cuma tujuh bulan, mereka sudah jual sebagian besar saham mereka dengan harga rata-rata $250 per saham. Di bulan Nopember harganya sudah melesat jadi $1000 per saham! (Di bulan Maret itu isterinya-lah yang mendesak buru-buru jual dia khawatir harga saham tak akan sampai setinggi itu lagi!) Di tahun 1881 dengan gegabah mereka jual lagi sepertiga jumlah sisa saham yang mereka punyai. Meski begitu, toh dalam tahun 1883 mereka sudah bisa peroleh keuntungan seharga sekitar sejuta dolar.
Kendati penemuan tilpun sudah mengorbitkan Bell jadi kaya-raya, dia tak pernah berhenti meneruskan penyelidikannya, dan dia berhasil menemukan lagi pelbagai alat yang berguna walau tidak sepenting tilpun. Minatnya beraneka ragam, tetapi tujuan utamanya adalah menolong orang tuli. Istrinya sendiri tadinya gadis tuli yang dilatihnya sendiri. Empat anak, dua lelaki dua perempuan keluar berkat perkawinan tetapi keempatnya mati muda. Tahun 1882 Bell jadi warganegara Amerika Serikat dan mati tahun 1922.
Ukuran besar-kecilnya pengaruh Bell terletak pada penilaian besar kecilnya makna tilpun itu sendiri. Menurut hemat saya, pengaruh itu besar sekali tak banyak penemuan yang begitu luas digunakan orang dan begitu besar pengaruhnya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.
Saya tempatkan Bell dalam urutan di bawah Marconi berhubung radio lebih beragam kegunaannya ketimbang tilpun. Misalnya, pembicaraan lewat tilpun dapat pada dasarnya dilakukan lewat radio, tetapi dalam beberapa hal (misalnya komunikasi dengan pesawat yang sedang terbang) tilpun tidak bisa menggantikan fungsi radio. Kalau saja cuma faktor itu semata yang jadi ukuran, Bell akan menduduki urutan jauh lebih bawah lagi daripada Marconi. Tetapi, ada dua hal yang layak dipertimbangkan. Pertama, meskipun pembicaraan tilpun pribadi bisa saja dilakukan lewat radio, akan teramat sulitlah menggantikan seluruh sistem pertilpunan kita dengan jaringan radio yang setara. Kedua, metode pokok menyalurkan kembali suara yang dirancang Bell buat penerima tilpun belakangan di ambil oper dan digunakan oleh penerima radio, piringan hitam dan pelbagai rupa peralatan lainnya. Itu sebabnya saya anggap pengaruh Bell cuma sedikit lebih kurang ketimbang Marconi.
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 1847-1922
Diambil dari:
Seratus Tokoh yang Paling Berpengaruh dalam Sejarah
Michael H. Hart, 1978
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George Soros

George Soros lahir adalah seorang kapitalis radikal, pelaku bisnis keuangan dan ekonomi, penanam modal saham, dan aktivis politik yang berkebangsaan Amerika Serikat. George Soros adalah seorang Yahudi dan pernah dipenjarakan sewaktu saat Perang Dunia I. George Soros (Shorosh) dilahirkan pada tanggal 12 Agustus 1930 di Budapest, Hungaria. Perusahaan-perusahaannya di Indonesia antara lain PT Bumi Resources Tk dan perkebunan sawit di Aceh.

Di Asia, George Soros terkenal akan tindakannya yang mengguncang dan menyebabkan krisis ekonomi di Asia, beberapa negara yang paling terkena dampaknya adalah Korea Selatan, Indonesia, dan Thailand, yang menyebabkan mata uang ketiga negara tersebut menjadi rendah bahkan sampai sekarang ini terasa efeknya (dollar Amerika terhadap rupiah Indonesia dulu sekitar 2000-2400, sekarang 9000-9500). Hong Kong, Malaysia, dan Filipina juga terpengaruh tapi tidak sebesar tiga negara sebelumnya. Tiongkok, Taiwan, dan Singapura hampir tidak terpengaruh. Jepang tidak terpengaruh banyak tapi mengalami kesulitan ekonomi jangka panjang. Umumnya di negara-negara seperti Thailand dan Indonesia, Soros dianggap lebih negatif sebagai kriminal ekonomi yang membuat ketidakstabilan ekonomi Asia, karena dengan jumlah simpanan uangnya yang besar mengguncang nilai mata uang Asia.

Di Inggris, George Soros terkenal akan tindakannya yang mengguncang Bank Inggris, yang terkenal akan peristiwa "hari rabu hitam" pada tahun 1992. Soros mempunyai cadangan uang yang sangat banyak dan membeli kemudian menjual Poundsterling yang mempunyai nilai sekitar 10 milliar Poundsterling. Banyak spekulan yang kebingungan darimana Soros bisa memiliki uang dalam jumlah besar.

Pernahkah Anda mengira bahwa satu orang saja cukup untuk membuat geger Bank Sentral Inggris di London. Anak dari seorang mantan tahanan perang dunia I ini sanggup untuk mengguncangkan Bank Sentral Inggris. Ia juga dikenal sebagai György Schwartz seorang spekulan keuangan, investor saham, dermawan dan seorang aktivis politik di Amerika.

Mungkin Anda semua masih ingat peristiwa beberapa tahun lalu dimana Soros dikenal sebagai “penghancur Bank Sentral Inggris (Bank of England)” pada hari Rabu kelabu pada tahun 1992. Apakah Anda mengingat hal itu? Ya, beliau melakukannya. Dengan segelontor uang yang sebesar 8,5 milyar dollar AS. Dia dimasukan majalah Forbes sebagai orang terkaya ke-80 didunia.

Ketua FED (Federal Reserve Department) yang pertama, Paul Volcker, pada tahun 2003 menulis sebuah kata pengantar dalam buku karangan Soros yang berjudul The Alchemy (yang diartikan sebagai filosofi dan disiplin spiritual ) of Finance demikian :

”George Soros telah berhasil membuat dirinya sebagai spekulan sukses terbesar didunia, dimana dia juga berhasil mendapatkan banyak uang dari investasinya tersebut. Bagian terbesar dari kesuksesannya itu membuat masyarakat dunia menjadi sadar untuk “membuka mata” terhadap dunia perdagangan dan juga yang lebih penting yaitu bersedia menerima ide-ide baru dari segala pemikiran dan kebiasaan dalam berinvestasi yang terus berkembang dengan pesat.”


George Soros
George Soros, orang terkaya yang punya kemampuan mengacaukan keuangan sebuah negara
Pria berkebangsaan Yahudi Kelahiran Hungaria ini banyak mengalami pahit getirnya kekejaman Nazi, pendudukan Sovyet dan terlunta-luntanya hidup di London, yang membentuk kepribadiannya seperti sekarang ini. Tahun 1947 meninggalkan Hungaria menuju London. Disini dia mengenyam pendidikan di London School of Economics. Pada saat itulah dia berkenalan secara langsung dengan filsuf Karl Popper, yang menulis buku berjudul ”The Open Society and Its Enemies.” Pada usia mendekati 50 tahun kekayaan George Soros mendekati US $ 100 juta, sepertiganya merupakan kekayaan pribadi. Suatu jumlah yang lebih dari cukup untuk kehidupan keluarga Soros. Dari sini mulai berpikir, apa yang akan dilakukan. Akhirnya diputuskan membentuk Open Society Institute dengan tujuan memajukan masyarakat tertutup; menjadikan masyarakat terbuka lebih mampu bertahan hidup; mempromosikan mode berpikir kritis.

Dengan yayasannya itu Soros membantu negara-negara (bekas) satelit Uni Sovyet di Eropa Timur berdiri serta negara-negara lain di Asia dan Amerika Latin Beberapa berhasil tetapi ada juga yang gagal. Terakhir adalah ketika dia berkampanye untuk menentang pemilihan kembali Presiden George W. Bush tahun 2004. Seperti diakuinya, peranannya yang bagaikan seorang negarawan tanpa negara ini karena pada dirinya terdapat tiga hal. Pertama mempunyai kemampuan dalam hal mengembangkan kerangka konseptual, kedua peletak keyakinan-keyakinan etis dan politis yang teguh dan ketiga karena mempunyai banyak uang.

Selain sebagai pendiri lembaga Soros Fund Management dan Open Society Institute dan juga menjabat sebagai Direktur Utama dari lembaga Council on Foreign Relations, dia juga banyak memberi bantuan pada Partai Solidaritas Buruh di Polandia, Lembaga Kemanusiaan Charter 77 di Cekoslovakia (sekarang Rep. Ceko), dan kontribusi aktif pada suatu partai politik di Uni Soviet yang sangat berpengaruh. Dana dan organisasi dari lembaga Georgia’s Rose Revolution(lembaga ini disebut-sebut sebagai lembaga terbesar dari lembaga yang pernah didirikan) yang didirikannya juga berjalan dengan baik. Di Amerika Serikat ia juga dikenal sebagai penyumbang dana terbesar sejak era Presiden George W. Bush gagal dan terpilih kembali menjadi Presiden AS.
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IMAM DARI MALANGBONG

Selasa, 17 Agustus 2010
DI Teluk Jakarta, sang "Imam" mengembuskan napas terakhir setelah tubuhnya diterjang peluru regu tembak. Toh, hampir lima puluh tahun setelah kematiannya, Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo masih terus mengilhami berbagai kelompok di negeri ini yang ingin menegakkan sebuah "Negara Islam"-baik dengan jalan damai maupun kekerasan.
Kendati dikenal sebagai pemimpin Islam, pria kelahiran Cepu, Jawa Tengah, 7 Januari 1907, itu sesungguhnya sosok yang tak terlalu "islami". Ayahnya, Kartosoewirjo, adalah seorang mantri candu-pangkat yang cukup tinggi untuk seorang "inlander" di masa kolonial. Candu dan Islam jelas bukan pasangan yang padan.
Keluarga Kartosoewirjo memang tergolong priayi feodal, dan bukan pemeluk Islam yang taat. "Keluarga kami cenderung abangan," kata salah seorang anggota keluarga di Cepu. Masa kecil Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo pun tak karib dengan pendidikan agama. Dia terus-menerus menempuh pendidikan di sekolah Belanda.
Setelah menamatkan Inlandsche School der Tweede Klasse, yang dikenal sebagai "Sekolah Ongko Loro", Karto kecil melanjutkan sekolah ke Hollands Inlandsche School di Rembang, Jawa Tengah. Setelah itu, dia meneruskan pendidikan ke Europeesche Lagere School, sekolah elite khusus untuk anak Belanda, di Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur.
Hanya anak pribumi cerdas dan berasal dari keluarga amtenar yang boleh masuk sekolah itu. Kemudian dia melanjutkan lagi pendidikan ke Nederlandsch Indische Artsen School-biasa disebut Sekolah Dokter Jawa-di Surabaya.
Di masa remaja, Kartosoewirjo yang mulai tertarik pada dunia pergerakan justru akrab dengan pemikiran kebangsaan-bahkan "kiri". Dia diketahui banyak membaca buku sosialisme yang diperoleh dari pamannya, Mas Marco Kartodikromo.
Marco dikenal sebagai wartawan dan aktivis Sarekat Islam beraliran merah. Terpengaruh bacaan itu, Kartosoewirjo terjun ke politik dengan bergabung di Jong Java dan kemudian Jong Islamieten Bond.
Pengetahuan agama Islam praktis digalinya secara otodidak, lewat literatur berbahasa Belanda dan persentuhan dengan sejumlah kiai. Guru mengajinya yang pertama adalah Notodihardjo, aktivis Partai Sarekat Islam Indonesia sekaligus Muhammadiyah di Bojonegoro. Penampilan Notodihardjo tipikal Islam-Jawa: tutur katanya halus dan dia selalu mengenakan blangkon, beskap, dan selop.
Adapun gurunya di dunia pergerakan, sekaligus guru agamanya terbesar, tak pelak lagi adalah Haji Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto-tokoh yang disebut Belanda "Raja Jawa tanpa Mahkota". Terpesona oleh pidato "singa podium" itu, Karto melamar menjadi murid dan mulai mondok di rumah Ketua Sarekat Islam itu di Surabaya.
Untuk membayar uang pondokan, Karto bekerja di surat kabar Fadjar Asia milik Tjokroaminoto. Ketekunan dan kecerdasan membawa Kartosoewirjo menjadi sekretaris pribadi mertua pertama Soekarno itu.
Patut dicatat, Tjokroaminoto juga dikenal sebagai guru bagi Semaoen yang beraliran komunis dan Soekarno yang beraliran nasionalis. Kesamaan tujuan untuk memerdekakan Indonesia dari penjajahan Belanda membuat mereka bersatu dan mengesampingkan perbedaan.
l l l
KETIKA tinggal di Malangbong, Garut, Kartosoewirjo kembali mempelajari Islam dari sejumlah ajengan, alias kiai lokal, seperti Ardiwisastra dari Malangbong, Kiai Mustafa Kamil dari Tasikmalaya, dan Kiai Yusuf Tauziri dari Wanareja. Ardiwisastra belakangan menjadi mertua dan sekutu dekatnya dalam perjuangan menegakkan Negara Islam.
Sebaliknya, Yusuf Tauziri menjadi lawan tangguh dalam arti sesungguhnya bagi Kartosoewirjo. Beberapa kali anak buah Yusuf yang menolak proklamasi Darul Islam terlibat baku tembak dengan pasukan Kartosoewirjo di medan tempur.
Dengan latar belakang Islam-Jawa seperti itu, bukan hal ajaib jika muncul cerita Kartosoewirjo pernah melakukan tapa geni tidak makan dan tidak minum selama 40 hari di Gua Walet, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. Dia meyakinkan pengikutnya bahwa bertapa juga dilakukan Rasulullah ketika memperoleh wahyu pertama di Gua Hira.
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Claude Shannon

Jumat, 02 Juli 2010
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001), an American mathematician and electronic engineer, is known as "the father of information theory".[1]
Shannon is famous for having founded information theory with one landmark paper published in 1948. He is also credited with founding both digital computer and digital circuit design theory in 1937, when, as a 21-year-old master's student at MIT, he wrote a thesis demonstrating that electrical application of Boolean algebra could construct and resolve any logical, numerical relationship

Shannon was born in Petoskey, Michigan. His father, Claude Sr (1862–1934), a descendant of early New Jersey settlers, was a businessman and for a while, Judge of Probate. His mother, Mabel Wolf Shannon (1890–1945), daughter of German immigrants, was a language teacher and for a number of years principal of Gaylord High School, Michigan. The first sixteen years of Shannon's life were spent in Gaylord, Michigan, where he attended public school, graduating from Gaylord High School in 1932. Shannon showed an inclination towards mechanical things. His best subjects were science and mathematics, and at home he constructed such devices as models of planes, a radio-controlled model boat and a telegraph system to a friend's house half a mile away. While growing up, he worked as a messenger for Western Union. His childhood hero was Thomas Edison, who he later learned was a distant cousin. Both were descendants of John Ogden, a colonial leader and an ancestor of many distinguished people.[2][3]

[edit] Boolean theory

In 1932 Shannon entered the University of Michigan, where he took a course that introduced him to the works of George Boole. He graduated in 1936 with two bachelor's degrees; one in electrical engineering and one in mathematics. Shannon then began graduate study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he worked on Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer, an analog computer.
While studying the complicated ad hoc circuits of the differential analyzer, Shannon saw that Boole's concepts could be used to great utility. A paper drawn from his 1937 master's thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits[4], was published in the 1938 issue of the Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. It also earned Shannon the Alfred Noble American Institute of American Engineers Award in 1940. Howard Gardner, of Harvard University, called Shannon's thesis "possibly the most important, and also the most famous, master's thesis of the century."
Victor Shestakov, at Moscow State University, had proposed a theory of electric switches based on Boolean logic a little bit earlier than Shannon, in 1935, but the first publication of Shestakov's result took place in 1941, after the publication of Shannon's thesis.
In this work, Shannon proved that Boolean algebra and binary arithmetic could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays then used in telephone routing switches, then turned the concept upside down and also proved that it should be possible to use arrangements of relays to solve Boolean algebra problems. Exploiting this property of electrical switches to do logic is the basic concept that underlies all electronic digital computers. Shannon's work became the foundation of practical digital circuit design when it became widely known among the electrical engineering community during and after World War II. The theoretical rigor of Shannon's work completely replaced the ad hoc methods that had previously prevailed.
Flush with this success, Vannevar Bush suggested that Shannon work on his dissertation at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, funded by the Carnegie Institution headed by Bush, to develop similar mathematical relationships for Mendelian genetics, which resulted in Shannon's 1940 PhD thesis at MIT, An Algebra for Theoretical Genetics[5].
In 1940, Shannon became a National Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. At Princeton, Shannon had the opportunity to discuss his ideas with influential scientists and mathematicians such as Hermann Weyl and John von Neumann, and even had the occasional encounter with Albert Einstein. Shannon worked freely across disciplines, and began to shape the ideas that would become information theory.[6]

[edit] Wartime research

Shannon then joined Bell Labs to work on fire-control systems and cryptography during World War II, under a contract with section D-2 (Control Systems section) of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC).
For two months early in 1943, Shannon came into contact with the leading British cryptanalyst and mathematician Alan Turing. Turing had been posted to Washington to share with the US Navy's cryptanalytic service the methods used by the British Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park to break the ciphers used by the German U-boats in the North Atlantic.[7] He was also interested in the encipherment of speech and to this end spent time at Bell Labs. Shannon and Turing met every day at teatime in the cafeteria.[7] Turing showed Shannon his seminal 1936 paper that defined what is now known as the "Universal Turing machine"[8][9] which impressed him, as many of its ideas were complementary to his own.
In 1945, as the war was coming to an end, the NDRC was issuing a summary of technical reports as a last step prior to its eventual closing down. Inside the volume on fire control a special essay titled Data Smoothing and Prediction in Fire-Control Systems, coauthored by Shannon, Ralph Beebe Blackman, and Hendrik Wade Bode, formally treated the problem of smoothing the data in fire-control by analogy with "the problem of separating a signal from interfering noise in communications systems."[10] In other words it modeled the problem in terms of data and signal processing and thus heralded the coming of the information age.
His work on cryptography was even more closely related to his later publications on communication theory.[11] At the close of the war, he prepared a classified memorandum for Bell Telephone Labs entitled "A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography," dated September, 1945. A declassified version of this paper was subsequently published in 1949 as "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems" in the Bell System Technical Journal. This paper incorporated many of the concepts and mathematical formulations that also appeared in his A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Shannon said that his wartime insights into communication theory and cryptography developed simultaneously and "they were so close together you couldn’t separate them".[12] In a footnote near the beginning of the classified report, Shannon announced his intention to "develop these results ... in a forthcoming memorandum on the transmission of information."[13]

[edit] Postwar contributions

In 1948 the promised memorandum appeared as "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", an article in two parts in the July and October issues of the Bell System Technical Journal. This work focuses on the problem of how best to encode the information a sender wants to transmit. In this fundamental work he used tools in probability theory, developed by Norbert Wiener, which were in their nascent stages of being applied to communication theory at that time. Shannon developed information entropy as a measure for the uncertainty in a message while essentially inventing the field of information theory.
The book, co-authored with Warren Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, reprints Shannon's 1948 article and Weaver's popularization of it, which is accessible to the non-specialist. Shannon's concepts were also popularized, subject to his own proofreading, in John Robinson Pierce's Symbols, Signals, and Noise.
Information theory's fundamental contribution to natural language processing and computational linguistics was further established in 1951, in his article "Prediction and Entropy of Printed English", proving that treating whitespace as the 27th letter of the alphabet actually lowers uncertainty in written language, providing a clear quantifiable link between cultural practice and probabilistic cognition.
Another notable paper published in 1949 is "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems", a declassified version of his wartime work on the mathematical theory of cryptography, in which he proved that all theoretically unbreakable ciphers must have the same requirements as the one-time pad. He is also credited with the introduction of sampling theory, which is concerned with representing a continuous-time signal from a (uniform) discrete set of samples. This theory was essential in enabling telecommunications to move from analog to digital transmissions systems in the 1960s and later.
He returned to MIT to hold an endowed chair in 1956.

[edit] Hobbies and inventions

Outside of his academic pursuits, Shannon was interested in juggling, unicycling, and chess. He also invented many devices, including rocket-powered flying discs, a motorized pogo stick, and a flame-throwing trumpet for a science exhibition[citation needed]. One of his more humorous devices was a box kept on his desk called the "Ultimate Machine", based on an idea by Marvin Minsky. Otherwise featureless, the box possessed a single switch on its side. When the switch was flipped, the lid of the box opened and a mechanical hand reached out, flipped off the switch, then retracted back inside the box. Renewed interest in the "Ultimate Machine" has emerged on YouTube and Thingiverse. In addition he built a device that could solve the Rubik's cube puzzle.[2]
He is also considered the co-inventor of the first wearable computer along with Edward O. Thorp.[14] The device was used to improve the odds when playing roulette.

[edit] Legacy and tributes

Shannon came to MIT in 1956 to join its faculty and to conduct work in the Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE). He continued to serve on the MIT faculty until 1978. To commemorate his achievements, there were celebrations of his work in 2001, and there are currently five statues of Shannon: one at the University of Michigan; one at MIT in the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems; one in Gaylord, Michigan; one at the University of California, San Diego; and another at Bell Labs. After the breakup of the Bell system, the part of Bell Labs that remained with AT&T was named Shannon Labs in his honor.
Robert Gallager has called Shannon the greatest scientist of the 20th century. According to Neil Sloane, an AT&T Fellow who co-edited Shannon's large collection of papers in 1993, the perspective introduced by Shannon's communication theory (now called information theory) is the foundation of the digital revolution, and every device containing a microprocessor or microcontroller is a conceptual descendant of Shannon's 1948 publication:[15] "He's one of the great men of the century. Without him, none of the things we know today would exist. The whole digital revolution started with him."[16]
Shannon developed Alzheimer's disease, and spent his last few years in a Massachusetts nursing home. He was survived by his wife, Mary Elizabeth Moore Shannon; a son, Andrew Moore Shannon; a daughter, Margarita Shannon; a sister, Catherine S. Kay; and two granddaughters.[17][18]
Shannon was oblivious to the marvels of the digital revolution because his mind was ravaged by Alzheimer's disease. His wife mentioned in his obituary that had it not been for Alzheimer's "he would have been bemused" by it all.[16]

[edit] Other work

Shannon and his famous electromechanical mouse Theseus (named after Theseus from Greek mythology) which he tried to have solve the maze in one of the first experiments in artificial intelligence

[edit] Shannon's mouse

Theseus, created in 1950, was a magnetic mouse controlled by a relay circuit that enabled it to move around a maze of 25 squares. Its dimensions were the same as an average mouse.[1] The maze configuration was flexible and it could be modified at will.[1] The mouse was designed to search through the corridors until it found the target. Having travelled through the maze, the mouse would then be placed anywhere it had been before and because of its prior experience it could go directly to the target. If placed in unfamiliar territory, it was programmed to search until it reached a known location and then it would proceed to the target, adding the new knowledge to its memory thus learning.[1] Shannon's mouse appears to have been the first learning device of its kind.[1]

[edit] Shannon's computer chess program

In 1950 Shannon published a groundbreaking paper on computer chess entitled Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. It describes how a machine or computer could be made to play a reasonable game of chess. His process for having the computer decide on which move to make is a minimax procedure, based on an evaluation function of a given chess position. Shannon gave a rough example of an evaluation function in which the value of the black position was subtracted from that of the white position. Material was counted according to the usual relative chess piece relative value (1 point for a pawn, 3 points for a knight or bishop, 5 points for a rook, and 9 points for a queen). He considered some positional factors, subtracting ½ point for each doubled pawns, backward pawn, and isolated pawn. Another positional factor in the evaluation function was mobility, adding 0.1 point for each legal move available. Finally, he considered checkmate to be the capture of the king, and gave the king the artificial value of 200 points. Quoting from the paper:
The coefficients .5 and .1 are merely the writer's rough estimate. Furthermore, there are many other terms that should be included. The formula is given only for illustrative purposes. Checkmate has been artificially included here by giving the king the large value 200 (anything greater than the maximum of all other terms would do).
The evaluation function is clearly for illustrative purposes, as Shannon stated. For example, according to the function, pawns that are doubled as well as isolated would have no value at all, which is clearly unrealistic.

[edit] The Las Vegas connection: Information theory and its applications to game theory

Shannon and his wife Betty also used to go on weekends to Las Vegas with M.I.T. mathematician Ed Thorp,[19] and made very successful forays in blackjack using game theory type methods co-developed with fellow Bell Labs associate, physicist John L. Kelly Jr. based on principles of information theory.[20] They made a fortune, as detailed in the book Fortune's Formula by William Poundstone and corroborated by the writings of Elwyn Berlekamp,[21] Kelly's research assistant in 1960 and 1962.[22] Shannon and Thorp also applied the same theory, later known as the Kelly criterion, to the stock market with even better results.[23]

[edit] Shannon's maxim

Shannon formulated a version of Kerckhoffs' principle as "the enemy knows the system". In this form it is known as "Shannon's maxim"
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Harry Nyquist : A Founding Father Of Digital Communications

When electrical engineers hear the name "Nyquist," they think of what Harry Nyquist is best known for: his Sampling Theorem. Evidence of its importance is everywhere. Products like cell phones, audio CDs, and iPods are all based on the broad-shouldered foundation of the theorem, and that alone is enough to place Nyquist among the industry's greats. But Harry Nyquist had many other, lesser known accomplishments, a number of which resonate strongly today.
Harry Nyquist was born in 1889 in Sweden. Impressed by Nyquist's intelligence, a teacher encouraged him to go to America, where there was greater opportunity. Nyquist arrived in the U.S. in 1907 and subsequently earned BSEE and MSEE degrees from the University of North Dakota in 1912 and 1915, respectively, and a PhD in physics from Yale University in 1917.
In 1917, Nyquist joined the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, delving into the work of improving telegraph picture and voice transmission. His department was folded into Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1934, which allowed him to continue his work in transmission engineering until his retirement in 1954. He built an impressive body of work during his 37 years with the communications giant, represented by his 138 U.S. patents and a dozen published technical articles.
As early as 1918, Nyquist had begun attempts to adapt telephone circuits for transmission of images. By 1924, AT&T had something it termed "telephotography," or what we'd call a facsimile machine. Despite a cruder method of execution, it used the same principles as today.
A photographic transparency was mounted on a spinning drum and scanned. The data was then transformed into electrical signals that were proportional to the shades and tones of the image. Next, the data was transmitted over phone lines and deposited onto a similarly spinning sheet of photographic negative file, which was developed in a darkroom. Incidentally, the first faxed images were 5- by 7-in. photos sent from New York City to Cleveland. Each photo took seven minutes to transmit.
Throughout the 1920s, Nyquist broke new ground in solving the communications issues of the day. In 1927 he extended the work of J.B. Johnson and developed a mathematical explanation for thermal noise, now known variously as Johnson or Nyquist noise.
The beginnings of modern information theory are found in the body of his work. In a 1924 paper in the Bell System Technical Journal, Nyquist first referred to what was transmitted by telegraphers as "information." He suggested that two factors determined the "maximum speed of transmission of intelligence."
Those factors were the signal's shape (a square wave was deemed superior to a sine wave) and the choice of code used to represent the intelligence. Using maximum Morse-code telegraphy speed as a starting point, Nyquist eventually determined that the maximum speed of intelligence transmission is proportional to the logarithm of the number of symbols that need to be represented.
Nyquist's most significant work was his 1928 paper, "Certain Topics In Telegraph Transmission Theory." It refined his earlier work on improving transmission speed. More importantly, though, it brought into focus Nyquist's theoretical work on the bandwidth requirements for data transmission and the basics of sampling continuous analog signals and converting them to digital form, now better known as the Nyquist Sampling Theorem.
Sampling Theorem
According to the Sampling Theorem, an analog signal must be sampled at regular intervals over time and at twice the frequency of its highest-frequency component to be converted into an adequate representation of the signal in digital form. Thus, the "Nyquist frequency" is the highest frequency that can be accurately sampled. It represents one-half of the sampling frequency. Adhering to the Nyquist Sampling Theorem ensures no lost data upon reconstruction in the analog domain.
Once again, Nyquist drew upon Morse code as a model to establish a way to digitally encode an analog signal using ones and zeros. A side benefit of this work was his invention of the codec circuit used to perform the coding and decoding of the analog signal.
Nyquist's work was enormously influential to the communication engineers that followed him. This was especially true of his Bell Labs colleague,-Claude Shannon, considered by many to be the father of information theory. Nyquist's 1924 and 1928 papers were cited in the first paragraph of Shannon's own claim to greatness, the 1948 paper titled "The Mathematical Theory of Communications."
Numerous experts say that Nyquist stated the Sampling Theorem, and Shannon later mathematically proved it. Moreover, many believe that Nyquist and Shannon are responsible for virtually all theoretical advances in modern communications.
In the early 1930s, Nyquist began looking into negative-feedback amplifiers and how to determine when they become stable. His findings resulted in the development of the Nyquist Stability Theorem. During World War II, the theorem helped control artillery that used electromechanical feedback systems. An outgrowth of Nyquist's work in feedback loops was the "Nyquist plot," which plots the magnitude and phase of a frequency response on orthogonal axes.
After his retirement, Nyquist became a part-time consultant, providing communications expertise to the Department of Defense and private defense electronics firms. He received many honors for his communications work. For example, he was the fourth recipient of the National Academy of Engineers' Founder's Medal.
Yet Nyquist never saw the full fruits of his labor. He died in 1976, years before the debut of the technology needed to make digital audio recording and playback a reality, and ultimately an enormous commercial success.
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NOSTRADAMUS

Selasa, 24 November 2009


Nostradamus dengan nama asli Michel de Notredame or Nostredame. Lahir di Boulougne, Perancis 14 Desember 1503. Dia berdarah Yahudi dari suku Issacher. Suku Issacher dikenal sebagai suku yang paling akurat dalam hal observasi serta ramalan bulan, bintang dan benda-benda langit lainnya. Nostradamus pernah belajar di Universitas Montpellier bidang kedokteran pada tahun 1522

saat itu usianya ± 19 tahun dan 3 tahun kemudian, ia berhasil memperoleh gelar dokter lalu tahun 1593 meninggalkan Universitasnya dan tinggal di Bordeux, La Rochelle dan Tolouse dan menikah dengan seorang gadis cantik bernama Adriela Loubejac, mereka dianugerahi seorang putra dan seorang putri.

Nostradamus pernah mengklaim, "saya pikir, saya akan, demi alasan kebaikan, menggambarkan perubahan-perubahan revolusioner paling penting yang saya terawang, tetapi agar tidak mengecewakan para pembaca, ramalan ini akan saya ungkapkan dalam gaya kalimat yang rumit dan berbelit-belit bukannya langsung berupa ramalan terang." Tentang Mati dan dia meninggal di Salon 1 Juli 1566.
pria yang ini hidup di dunia selama 62 tahun ini, meninggal karena menderita gout (persendian bengkak dan nyeri) yang berkembang menjadi dropsy (gout berat) malam sebelum meninggal Nostradamus memanggil seorang pendeta, sebagai saksi yang akan mendengar pengakuan terakhirnya dan mengucapkan do'a terakhir. Pada malam harinya dia sempat mengatakan bahwa ia tidak akan bisa dijumpai lagi pada saat terbitnya matahari esok. Keesokan paginya, apa yang dikatakan Nostradamus benar, ia ditemukan terbujur sekarat di atas lantai pada posisi menyilang pada bangku yang biasa ia gunakan untuk naik dan turun dari tempat tidur. Sebelum kematiannya, Nostradamus telah berpesan kepada muridnya agar ia dikubur dalam keadaaan berdiri, begitulah pemakamannya dilakukan, di dalam lubang pada dinding Gereja Cordeliers. Di atas batu yang menandai kuburannya terukir:
"Di sinilah bersemayam tulang belulang seorang tokoh yang paling disegani, Michel Nostradamus, satu-satunya, dalam menilai semua manusia, orang yang berhak menulis dengan pena yang nyaris dibimbing wahyu, di bawah pengaruh bintang-bintang, mengenai peristiwa-peristiwa yang bakal terjadi di seluruh dunia".
Belakangan sisa-sisa mayatnya dipindahkan ke tempat yang lebih terhormat di dalam Gereja. Pada tahun 1793 selama terjadinya Revolusi Perancis, beberapa penjahat membongkar dan mengambil tengkorak sang peramal dan salah satunya mengeluarkan isiya. Tiba-tiba sebuah peluru nyasar datang dari suatu arah dan membunuhnya seketika. Meskipun bangunan Gerejanya kini telah hancur, mayat Nostradamus belakangan ditemukan kembali di dalam Gereja St. Laurent pada 1813.
Ada yang lucu karena setelah kematiannya, putranya Cesar mencoba mengikuti jejak langkah ayahnya tapi tidak membuahkan hasil. Dalam keputusasaannya Cesar mengumumkan bahwa kota Vivarais akan ludes dilalap api, dan untuk memastikan bahwa ramalannya ini benar, dia membakarnya sendiri tapi dia berhasil ditangkap dan dibunuh oleh pasukan kerajaan.


Tentang ramalannya

Nostradamus lewat bukunya The Century telah meramalkan tentang Revolusi Perancis, melemahnya paham komunis, perang dunia, munculnya Napoleon, kejayaan Hitler, pembunuhan mantan Presiden AS John F Kennedy, perjalanan ke ruang angkasa, tenaga nuklir, ramalan bom atom Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, munculnya HIV dan tragedi Putri Diana. Ketika Uni Soviet runtuh pada awal tahun 1990, media Soviet melaporkan bahwa menurut dugaan, Nostradamus telah meramalkan bahwa Uni Soviet akan berakhir setelah 73 tahun 7 bulan.

Sri Paus Berikutnya akan Dibunuh
Nostradamus juga punya ramalan bahwa Sri Paus yang nantinya akan terpilih untuk menggantikan mendiang Paus Yohanes Paulus II, akan mati terbunuh. Selanjutnya kematian Paus baru itu akan menjadi pencetus invasi Muslim ke Barat, yang akan memecah gereja Katolik. Demikian menurut interpretasi ramalan Nostradamus oleh penulis terkemuka asal Kolombia.

"Paus terpilih berikutnya tak lama akan dibunuh di Italia tengah. Kemudian datang Paus nomor 112, yang akan meninggalkan Roma karena adanya serangan Muslim," ujar Gonzalo Echeverri, penulis buku mengenai Nostradamus. Menurut Echeverri, Paus tersebut akan bermarkas di Avignon “Avignon merupakan basis bagi para Paus selama abad ke-14 silam, saat-saat dimana terjadi perpecahan hebat di gereja Katolik dan Eropa”, Perancis dan Paus lainnya akan mengambil alih di Italia, sehingga memecah gereja Katolik menjadi dua bagian. Demikian seperti yang dipublikasikan oleh AFP.

Swissair 111 dan Bahtera Sirius
Betapa sulit mencerna ramalan yang jadi kenyataan. Seperti ramalan Nostradamus terhadap kecelakaan Swissair 111 di Nova Scotia, Kanada, dan pemboman NATO terhadap Novi Sad, berikut ini puisi yang menggambarkan kejadian itu dan di terjemahkan oleh Goro Adachi seorang ahli matematik yang kemudian menemukan rumus 'Babylon Matrix' yang bisa digunakan memecah (decoding) hubungan yang terputus antara posisi bintang-bintang dengan ramalan yang menjadi kenyataan.

Quatrain VI-97
Forty five degrees the sky will burn,
Fire to approach the great new city.
In an instant a great scattered flame will leap up,
When they want to have proof of the Normans.

Quatrain II-41
The great star will burn for seven days,
The cloud will make double sun appear:
The large mastiff will howl all night
When the great pontiff changes his abode.

Pada baris pertama dan kedua Quatrain VI-97, Nostradamus menulis: Forty five degrees the sky will burn, fire to approach the great new city. Aneh tapi nyata, Goro Adachi menemukan koneksitasnya dengan:

* Kecelakaan MD-11 Swissair 111, 2 September 1998 di wilayah Nova Scotia;
* Pemboman NATO terhadap kilang minyak Yugoslavia di Novi-Sad;
* Peledakan pesawat PanAm nomor penerbangan 103 di atas Skotlandia.

Dua baris karya Nostradamus tersebut lebih-kurang bisa diartikan sebagai: sebuah malapetaka yang disertai kobaran api di udara (sky) akan terjadi pada garis lintang 45 derajad, dan tragedi ini menuju sebuah wilayah (kota) baru yang besar. Percaya atau tidak, ini amat berkaitan dengan dua kecelakaan pertama. Sebab, bukankah lokasi jatuhnya Swissair 111 di Nova Scotia dan Novi Sad terletak pada garis Lintang (Utara) 45 derajad.

Seperti tertera dalam Britannica Atlas (Chicago, 1982), Nova Scotia persisnya terletak dalam koordinat 45.00° LU-63.00°BB, sementara Novi Sad pada 45.15°LU-19.50°BT. Dan, ajaibnya, keduanya berkaitan erat dengan unsur 'api'. Lebih lanjut, keduanya juga berhubungan dengan 'tanah atau wilayah baru'. Ini bisa disimak dari tempat kejadiannya, dimana 'Nova' atau 'Novi' yang juga bisa diartikan 'baru'.

Akan halnya dengan kasus peledakan PanAm 103 sendiri, Adachi mengkaitkannya dengan baris keempat, yakni, bahwa: "Ketika semua itu ingin dibuktikan orang Norman". Percaya atau tidak, salah seorang jaksa penuntut kasus yang melibatkan teroris Libya ini adalah orang Scotlandia bernama Norman McFadyen. Ini artinya tak masalah jika bagian baris ini kemudian disempurnakan menjadi 'proof of Norman'.

Hantaman Komet SL-9
Masih berkaitan dengan kedirgantaraan, terhadap baris pertama dan kedua Quatrain II-41 Adachi menghubungkannya dengan persitiwa pecahan komet SL (Shoemaker-Levy)-9 yang menghantam planet Jupiter pada Juli 1994. Seperti ditulis Nostradamus, kejadian ini memang berlangsung selama tujuh hari dan berhubungan dengan bintang besar atau yang dapat ditafsirkan pula sebagai planet terbesar (dalam tata-surya kita), yang tak lain adalah Jupiter.

Lalu apa kaitannya dengan baris: "The cloud will make double sun appear" Dalam hal ini, menurut Adachi, nampaknya Nostradamus menggambarkan gelombang pecahan komet SL-9 sebagai serbuan awan yang sanggup membelah si bintang besar (Jupiter) menjadi dua matahari. Nah, dalam baris ini pulalah, Sang Peramal mengikutkan unsur (bintang besar bercahaya paling cemerlang) Sirius, yang selanjutnya dianggap berhubungan dengan Quatrain VI-97.

Sirius sendiri dalam ilmu astronomi adalah salah satu bintang paling cemerlang dalam gugus Canis Major (yang artinya adalah anjing besar), yang juga dikenal sebagai bintang terdekat dengan matahari dalam tata-surya kita. Lebih lanjut, Adachi sendiri banyak memberi uraian, yang singkat kata bahwa kedua quatrain ini punya koneksitas khusus dengan kompleks bintang Sirius, yang kemudian diberi simbol sebagai 'Bahtera Sirius' (The Ark of Sirius).

9/11
Runtuhnya gedung WTC dan inilah bait yang menggambarkan peristiwa tersebut.

Bulan Juli tahun 1999
Demi menghidupkan kembali Raja Agolmois
Raja teror akan turun dari langit
Pada saat tiba waktunya Marx akan menguasai dunia
Katanya adalah agar orang-orang mendapat kehidupan yang bahagia

Anti kristus
Seseorang akan dilahirkan di bawah naungan 3 karakter air
Setiap hari Kamis berpesta pora
Nama besar, puja puji, kedudukan dan kekuasaannya akan membentang di darat dan lautan
Membawa kesengsaraan di daerah timur

Bait lanjutan
Anti kristus dengan cepat membasmi yang tiga itu
Pertempuran ini akan berlangsung selama 27 tahun
Yang tidak mempercayai dia akan dibunuh, ditangkap, dan terusir
Darah, mayat, air bah dan hujan salju merah akan
menyelubungi tanah

Nostradamus juga menyinggung tentang 3 orang anti-Kristus (diartikan juga sebagai raja lalim atau kekuatan ekstrem yang berlawanan dengan semangat ketuhanan). Dua orang di antaranya dikenal luas adalah Napoleon dan Hitler. Orang ketiga akan muncul menjelang akhir abad 20.
READ MORE - NOSTRADAMUS

OSAMAH BIN LADEN

Sabtu, 31 Oktober 2009

Dilahirkan di Riyadh, Saudi Arabia pada tahun 1957. Dikenal sebagai dalang penyerangan teroris melawan Amerika Serikat dan kekuatan barat lainnya, termasuk pemboman Pusat Perdagangan Kota New York pada tahun 1993, bom bunuh diri pada kapal perang Amerika Serikat tahun 2000, dan serangan ke Pusat Perdagangan Dunia di kota New York dan Pentagon dekat Washington, D.C tanggal 11 September 2001.

Bin Laden adalah satu dari lebih 50 anak di Saudi Arabia yang berasal dari keluarga kaya. Ia kuliah di King Abdul Aziz University, dimana ia menerima gelar di civil engineering. Setelah Uni Soviet menyerbu Afghanistan pada tahun 1979, bin Laden seperti beribu muslim dari seluruh dunia bergabung dalam pertahanan Afghan.

Setelah Soviet menarik mundur pada tahun 1989, bin Laden pulang sebagai seorang pahlawan, namun ia kecewa terhadap apa yang dirasanya sebagai korupsi di pemerintahan Saudi dan keluarganya.

Keberatannya adalah pada kehadiran pasukan amerika Serikat di Saudi Arabia selama Perang Teluk Persia. Menjelang tahun 1993 ia telah mendirikan suatu jaringan yang dikenal dengan al-Qaeda.

Kelompok tersebut mendanai dan mengorganisir beberapa serangan ke seluruh dunia, termasuk bom truck detonasi melawan Amerika target di Saudi Arabia pada tahun 1996, pembunuhan turis di Mesir pada tahun 1997, dan pemboman secara simultan di kedutaan amerika Serikat di Nairobi, Kenya, dan Dar es Salaam, Tanzania pada tahun 1998, yang kesemuanya membunh hamper 300 orang.

Pada tahun 1994, pemerintah Saudi Arabia menyita passpornya setelah menuduhnya subversi, lalu ia lari ke Sudan, dimana ia mengorganisir camps yang melatih militant dengan metode teroris dan akhirnya ia lari pada tahun 1996. Ia lalu kembali ke Afghanistan, dimana ia menerima perlindungan dari pemimpin militant Taliban.

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Usāmah bin Muḥammad bin `Awaḍ bin Lādin
(Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎)
Born March 10, 1957 (1957-03-10) (age 52)

Osama bin Laden
Place of birth
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Battles/wars
Soviet war in Afghanistan
War on Terrorism
Usama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden (with numerous variations; Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎, Usāmah bin Muḥammad bin ʾAwaḍ bin Lādin) (born 10 March 1957) is a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founding leader of al-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attacks on the United States and its associations with numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian targets. Bin Laden is on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's list of FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives.[1]
Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization have been major targets of the United States' War on Terrorism. Bin Laden and fellow Al-Qaeda leaders are believed to be hiding near the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

Variations of bin Laden's name

Because there is no universally accepted standard in the West for transliterating Arabic words and names into English, bin Laden's name is spelled in many ways. The version often used by most English-language mass media is Osama bin Laden. Most American government agencies, including the FBI and CIA, use either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin", both of which are often abbreviated to UBL. Less common renderings include "Ussamah Bin Ladin" and "Oussama Ben Laden" (French-language mass media). The last two words of the name can also be found as "Binladen" or (as used by his family in the West) "Binladin". The spelling with 'o' and 'e' comes from a Persian-influenced pronunciation used in Afghanistan where he was for a long time.
Strictly speaking, Arabic linguistic conventions dictate that he be referred to as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden," as "Bin Laden" is not used as a surname in the Western manner, but simply as part of his name, which in its long form means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of 'Awad, son of Laden". Still, "bin Laden" has become nearly universal in Western references to him.
Bin Laden's admirers commonly use several aliases and nicknames, including the Prince, the Sheikh, Al-Amir, Abu Abdallah, Sheikh Al-Mujahid, the Lion Sheik,[2] the Director, Imam Mehdi and Samaritan.[3]

Childhood, education and personal life

Osama bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[4] In a 1998 interview, he gave his birth date as 10 March 1957.[5] His father Muhammed Awad bin Laden was a wealthy businessman with close ties to the Saudi royal family.[6] Osama bin Laden was born the only son of Muhammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Hamida al-Attas.[7] Osama's parents divorced soon after he was born; Osama's mother then married Muhammad al-Attas. The couple had four children, and Osama lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.[7]
Bin Laden was raised as a devout Wahhabi Muslim.[8] From 1968 to 1976 he attended the "élite" secular Al-Thager Model School.[9] Bin Laden studied economics and business administration[10] at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest bin Laden earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979,[11] or a degree in public administration in 1981.[12] Other sources describe him as having left university during his third year,[13] never completing a college degree, though "hard working."[14] At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work.[15] He also writes poetry.[16]
In 1974, at the age of 17, bin Laden married his first wife Najwa Ghanem at Latakia.[17][18] According to CNN national security correspondent David Ensore, as of 2002 bin Laden had married four women and fathered roughly 25 or 26 children.[19] Other sources report that he has fathered anywhere from 12 to 24 children.
 

Beliefs and ideology

Bin Laden believes that the restoration of Sharia law will set things right in the Muslim world, and that all other ideologies—"pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy"—must be opposed.[21] These beliefs, along with violent expansive jihad, have sometimes been called Qutbism.[22] He believes Afghanistan under the rule of Mullah Omar's Taliban was "the only Islamic country" in the Muslim world.[23] Bin Laden has consistently dwelt on the need for violent jihad to right what he believes are injustices against Muslims perpetrated by the United States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states,[24] the need to eliminate the state of Israel, and the necessity of forcing the US to withdraw from the Middle East. He has also called on Americans to "reject the immoral acts of fornication (and) homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling, and usury," in an October 2002 letter.[25]
Probably the most infamous part of Bin Laden's ideology is that civilians, including women and children, are legitimate targets of jihad.[26][27] Bin Laden is antisemitic, and has delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: "These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next."[28] Shia Muslims have been listed along with "Heretics,... America and Israel," as the four principal "enemies of Islam" at ideology classes of bin Laden's Al-Qaeda organization.[29]
In keeping with Wahhabi beliefs,[30] bin Laden opposes music on religious grounds,[31] and his attitude towards technology is mixed. He is interested in "earth-moving machinery and genetic engineering of plants" on the one hand, but rejects "chilled water" on the other.[32]
His viewpoints and methods of achieving them have led to him been designated as a "terrorist" by scholars,[33][34] journalists from the New York Times,[35][36] the British Broadcasting Corporation,[37] and Qatari news station Al Jazeera,[38] analysts such as Peter Bergen,[39] Michael Scheuer,[40] Marc Sageman,[41] and Bruce Hoffman[42][43] and he was indicted on terrorism charges by law enforcement agencies in Madrid, New York City, and Tripoli.[44]

Militant activity

Mujahideen in Afghanistan

After leaving college in 1979 bin Laden joined Abdullah Azzam to fight the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan[45] and lived for a time in Peshawar.[46]
By 1984, with Azzam, bin Laden established Maktab al-Khadamat, which funneled money, arms and Muslim fighters from around the Arabic world into the Afghan war. Through al-Khadamat, bin Laden's inherited family fortune[47] paid for air tickets and accommodation, dealt with paperwork with Pakistani authorities and provided other such services for the jihad fighters. He moved to Peshawar in 1994,[citation needed]. Osama established a camp in Afghanistan, and with other volunteers fought the Soviets.
It was during his time in Peshawar that he began to wear camouflage-print jackets and carrying a captured Soviet assault rifle, which urban legends claimed he had obtained by killing a Russian soldier with his bare hands.[48]

Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda

By 1988, bin Laden had split from Maktab al-Khidamat, while Azzam acted as support for Afghan fighters, Laden wanted a more military role. One of the main leading points to the split and the creation of al-Qaeda was the insistence of Azzam that Arab fighters be integrated among the Afghan fighting groups instead of forming their separate fighting force.[49] Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia in 1990 as a hero of jihad, who along with his Arab legion, "had brought down the mighty superpower" of the Soviet Union.[50] However, during this time Iraq invaded Kuwait and Laden met with Sultan, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, and told him not to depend on non-Muslim troops and offered to help defend Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden's offer was rebuffed and after the American offer to help was accepted he publicly denounced Saudi Arabia's dependence on the US military. Bin Laden's criticism of the Saudi monarchy led that government to attempt to silence him.

Balkan wars

One of the former State Department officials has described Bosnia and Herzegovina of that time as a safe haven for terrorists, after it was revealed that militant elements of the former Sarajevo government were protecting extremists, some with ties to Osama bin Laden.[51] In 1997, Rzeczpospolita, one of the largest Polish daily newspapers, reported that intelligence services of the Nordic-Polish SFOR Brigade suspected that a center for training terrorists from Islamic countries was located in the Bocina Donja village near Maglaj in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1992, hundreds of volunteers joined an "all-mujahedeen unit" called El Moujahed in an abandoned hillside factory, a compound with a hospital and prayer hall. According to Middle East intelligence reports. Bin Laden financed small convoys of recruits from the Arab world through his businesses in Sudan. Among them was Karim Said Atmani who was identified by authorities as the document forger for a group of Algerians accused of plotting the bombings in the USA.[52] He is a former roommate of Ahmed Ressam, the man arrested at the Canadian-U.S. border in mid-December 1999 with a car full of nitroglycerin and bomb-making materials.[53][54] He was convicted of colluding with Osama bin Laden by a French court.[55] A Bosnian government search of passport and residency records, conducted at the urging of the United States, revealed other former mujahideen who are linked to the same Algerian group or to other groups of suspected terrorists who have lived in this area 60 miles (97 km) north of Sarajevo, the capital, in the past few years. Khalil al-Deek, was arrested in Jordan in late December 1999 on suspicion of involvement in a plot to blow up tourist sites; a second man with Bosnian citizenship, Hamid Aich, lived in Canada at the same time as Atmani and worked for a charity associated with Osama Bin Laden. In its 26 June 1997 Report on the bombing of the Al Khobar building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the New York Times noted that those arrested confessed to serving with Bosnian Muslims forces. Further, the captured men also admitted to ties with Osama Bin Laden. In 1999 it was revealed that Osama bin Laden and his Tunisian assistant Mehrez Aodouni were granted citizenship and Bosnian passport in 1993 by the Government in Sarajevo. This information was denied by Bosnian government following the 9/11 attacks but it was later found out that Aodouni was arrested in Turkey and that at that time he possessed the Bosnian passport. Following this revelation new explanation was given that bin Laden "did not personally collect his Bosnian passport" and that officials at the Bosnian embassy in Vienna, which issued the passport, could not have known who bin Laden was at the time.[56][57][58] The Bosnian daily Oslobođenje published in 2001 that three men, believed linked to be linked to Osama Bin Laden, were arrested in Sarajevo in July 2001. The three, one of whom was identified as Imad El Misri, were Egyptian nationals. The paper said that two of the suspects were holding Bosnian passports.[56]
In 1998 it was reported that bin Laden was operating his Al Qaeda network out of Albania. The Charleston Gazette quoted Fatos Klosi, the head of the Albanian intelligence service, as saying a network run by Saudi exile Osama Bin Laden sent units to fight in the Serbian province of Kosovo. Confirmation of these activities came from Claude Kader, a French national who said he was a member of Bin Laden's Albanian network.
By 1998 four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) were arrested in Albania extradited to Egypt at the urging of CIA. (It is believed that the 1998 bombing of US embassies in Africa occurred as retaliation for these arrest.)[59]

Sudan

Bin Laden moved to Sudan in 1992 and established a new base for Mujahideen operations in Khartoum. Due to bin Laden's continuous verbal assault on King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, on 5 March 1994 Fahd sent an emissary to Sudan demanding bin Laden's passport. His family was persuaded to cut off his monthly stipend, the equivalent of $7 million a year.[60] By now bin Laden was strongly associated with Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), which made up the core of al-Qaeda. In 1995 the EIJ attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The attempt failed and the EIJ was expelled from Sudan.
The 9/11 Commission Report concludes,
"In February 1996, Sudanese officials began approaching officials from the United States and other governments, asking what actions of theirs might ease foreign pressure. In secret meetings with Saudi officials, Sudan offered to expel bin Laden to Saudi Arabia and asked the Saudis to pardon him. US officials became aware of these secret discussions, certainly by March. Saudi officials apparently wanted bin Laden expelled from Sudan. They had already revoked his citizenship, however, and would not tolerate his presence in their country. Also bin Laden may have no longer felt safe in Sudan, where he had already escaped at least one assassination attempt that he believed to have been the work of the Egyptian or Saudi regimes, or both."
The 9/11 Commission Report further states,
"In late 1995, when Bin Laden was still in Sudan, the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) learned that Sudanese officials were discussing with the Saudi government the possibility of expelling Bin Laden. CIA paramilitary officer Billy Waugh tracked down bin Ladin in the Sudan and prepared an operation to apprehend him, but was denied authorization.[61] US Ambassador Timothy Carney encouraged the Sudanese to pursue this course. The Saudis, however, did not want Bin Laden, giving as their reason their revocation of his citizenship. Sudan’s minister of defense, Fatih Erwa, has claimed that Sudan offered to hand Bin Laden over to the United States. The Commission has found no credible evidence that this was so. Ambassador Carney had instructions only to push the Sudanese to expel Bin Laden. Ambassador Carney had no legal basis to ask for more from the Sudanese since, at the time, there was no indictment outstanding."[62]
In May 1996, under increasing pressure from Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the United States on Sudan, bin Laden returned to Jalalabad, Afghanistan aboard a chartered jet and forged a close relationship with Mullah Mohammed Omar.[63][64] In Afghanistan, bin Laden and Al-Qaeda raised money from "donors from the days of the Soviet jihad", and from Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).[65] When Bin Laden left Sudan, he and his organization were significantly weakened, despite his ambitions and organizational skills.[66]

Early attacks and aid for attacks

It is believed that the first bombing attack involving bin Laden was the 29 December 1992 bombing of the Gold Mihor Hotel in Aden in which two people were killed.[67]
It was after this bombing that al-Qaeda was reported to have developed its justification for the killing of innocent people. According to a fatwa issued by Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, the killing of someone standing near the enemy is justified because any innocent bystander will find their proper reward in death, going to Paradise if they were good Muslims and to hell if they were bad or non-believers.[68] The fatwa was issued to al-Qaeda members but not the general public.
In the 1990s bin Laden's al-Qaeda assisted jihadis financially and sometimes militarily in Algeria, Egypt and Afghanistan. In 1992 or 1993 bin Laden sent an emissary, Qari el-Said, with $40,000 to Algeria to aid the Islamists and urge war rather than negotiation with the government. Their advice was heeded but the war that followed killed 150,000–200,000 Algerians and ended with Islamist surrender to the government. Another effort by bin Laden was the funding of the Luxor massacre of November 17 1997,[69][70][71] which killed sixty two civilians, but so revolted the Egyptian public that it turned against Islamist terror. In mid-1997, the Northern Alliance threatened to overrun Jalalabad, causing Bin Laden to abandon his Nazim Jihad compound and move his operations to Tarnak Farms in the south.[72]
A later effort that did succeed was an attack on the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan. Bin Laden helped cement his alliance with his hosts the Taliban by sending several hundred of his Afghan Arab fighters along to help the Taliban kill between five and six thousand Hazaras overrunning the city.[73]
In 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders which declared the killing of the North Americans and their allies an "individual duty for every Muslim" to "liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip".[74][75] At the public announcement of the fatwa bin Laden announced that North Americans are "very easy targets." He told the attending journalists, "You will see the results of this in a very short time."[76]
At the end of 2000, Richard Clarke revealed that Islamic militants headed by bin Laden had planned a triple attack on January 3, 2000 which would have included bombings in Jordan of the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman and tourists at Mount Nebo and a site on the Jordan River, the sinking of the destroyer USS The Sullivans in Yemen, as well as an attack on a target within the United States. The plan was foiled by the arrest of the Jordanian terrorist cell, the sinking of the explosive-filled skiff intended to target the destroyer, and the arrest of Ahmed Ressam.[77]

September 11, 2001 attacks

"God knows it did not cross our minds to attack the towers but after the situation became unbearable and we witnessed the injustice and tyranny of the American-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon, I thought about it. And the events that affected me directly were that of 1982 and the events that followed -- when America allowed the Israelis to invade Lebanon, helped by the U.S. Sixth Fleet. As I watched the destroyed towers in Lebanon, it occurred to me punish the unjust the same way (and) to destroy towers in America so it could taste some of what we are tasting and to stop killing our children and women."
Osama bin Laden [78]
After initial denial, in 2004 Osama bin Laden claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.[79][80][81] The attacks involved the hijacking of United Airlines Flight 93, United Airlines Flight 175, American Airlines Flight 11, and American Airlines Flight 77; the subsequent destruction of those planes and the World Trade Center in New York City, New York; severe damage to The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia;[82] and the deaths of 2,974 people excluding the nineteen hijackers.[83] In response to the attacks, the United States launched a War on Terrorism to depose the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and capture al-Qaeda operatives, and several countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation to preclude future attacks. The CIA's Special Activities Division was given the lead in tracking down and killing or capturing bin Laden.[84]
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that evidence linking Al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable.[85] The Government of the United Kingdom reached the same conclusion regarding Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11, 2001, attacks.[86] Bin Laden initially denied involvement in the September 11, 2001 attacks. On 16 September 2001, bin Laden read a statement later broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel denying responsibility for the attack.[87]
In a videotape recovered by US forces in November 2001 in Jalalabad, bin Laden was seen discussing the attack with Khaled al-Harbi in a way that indicates foreknowledge.[88] The tape was broadcast on various news networks on 13 December 2001. The merits of this translation have been disputed. Arabist Dr. Abdel El M. Husseini stated: "This translation is very problematic. At the most important places where it is held to prove the guilt of bin Laden, it is not identical with the Arabic."[89]
In the 2004 Osama bin Laden video, bin Laden abandoned his denials without retracting past statements. In it he stated he had personally directed the nineteen hijackers.[80][90] In the 18-minute tape, played on Al-Jazeera, four days before the American presidential election, bin Laden accused U.S. President George W. Bush of negligence on the hijacking of the planes on September 11.[80]
According to the tapes, bin Laden claimed he was inspired to destroy the World Trade Center after watching the destruction of towers in Lebanon by Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War.[91]
In two other tapes aired by Al Jazeera in 2006, Osama bin Laden announces,
I am the one in charge of the nineteen brothers … I was responsible for entrusting the nineteen brothers … with the raids [5 minute audiotape broadcast 23 May 2006],[92]
and is seen with Ramzi Binalshibh, as well as two of the 9/11 hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks (videotape broadcast 7 September 2006).[93]

Criminal charges

On 16 March 1998, Libya issued the first official international Interpol arrest warrant against Bin Laden and three other people for killing two German citizens in Libya on 10 March 1994, one of which is thought to have been a German counter-intelligence officer. Bin Laden is still wanted by the Libyan government.[94][95] Osama bin Laden was first indicted by the United States on 8 June 1998, when a grand jury indicted Osama bin Laden on charges of killing five Americans and two Indians in the 14 November 1995 truck bombing of a US-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh.[96] Bin Laden was charged with "conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States" and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden is the head of the terrorist organization called al Qaeda, and that he was a major financial backer of Islamic fighters worldwide.[96] Bin Laden denied involvement but praised the attack. On November 4, 1998, Osama bin Laden was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, on charges of Murder of US Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder US Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death[97] for his alleged role in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. The evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony by former Al Qaeda members and satellite phone records.[98]
Bin Laden became the 456th person listed on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list, when he was added to the list on 7 June 1999, following his indictment along with others for capital crimes in the 1998 embassy attacks. Attempts at assassination and requests for the extradition of bin Laden from the Taliban of Afghanistan were met with failure prior to the bombing of Afghanistan in October 2001.[99] In 1999, US President Bill Clinton convinced the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan in an attempt to force the Taliban to extradite him. Years later, on 10 October 2001, bin Laden appeared as well on the initial list of the top 22 FBI Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by the President of the United States George W. Bush, in direct response to the attacks of 9/11, but which was again based on the indictment for the 1998 embassy attack. Bin Laden was among a group of thirteen fugitive terrorists wanted on that latter list for questioning about the 1998 embassy bombings. Bin Laden remains the only fugitive ever to be listed on both FBI fugitive lists.
Despite the multiple indictments listed above and multiple requests, the Taliban refused to extradite Osama Bin Laden. It wasn't until after the bombing of Afghanistan began in October 2001 that the Taliban finally did offer to turn over Osama bin Laden to a third-party country for trial, in return for the US ending the bombing and providing evidence that Osama bin Laden was involved in the 9/11 attacks. This offer was rejected by George W Bush stating that this was no longer negotiable with Bush responding that "There's no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he's guilty."[100]

Attempted capture by the United States



US leaflet used in Afghanistan.

Clinton Administration

Capturing Osama bin Laden has been an objective of the United States government since the presidency of Bill Clinton.[101] Shortly after the September 11 attacks it was revealed that President Clinton had signed a directive authorizing the CIA (and specifically their elite Special Activities Division) to apprehend bin Laden and bring him to the United States to stand trial after the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa; if taking bin Laden alive was deemed impossible, then deadly force was authorized.[102] On August 20, 1998, 66 cruise missiles launched by United States Navy ships in the Arabian Sea struck bin Laden's training camps near Khost in Afghanistan, narrowly missing him by a few hours.[103] In 1999 the CIA, together with Pakistani military intelligence, had prepared a team of approximately 60 Pakistani commandos to infiltrate Afghanistan to capture or kill bin Laden, but the plan was aborted by the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état;[103] in 2000, foreign operatives working on behalf of the CIA had fired a rocket-propelled grenade at a convoy of vehicles in which bin Laden was traveling through the mountains of Afghanistan, hitting one of the vehicles but not the one bin Laden was in.[102]
In 2000, prior to the September 11 attacks, Paul Bremer characterized the Clinton administration as "correctly focused on bin Laden", while Robert Oakley criticized their "obsession with Osama".[77]

Bush Administration

According to The Washington Post, the US government concluded that Osama bin Laden was present during the Battle of Tora Bora, Afghanistan in late 2001, and according to civilian and military officials with first-hand knowledge, failure by the US to commit US ground troops to hunt him led to his escape and was the gravest failure by the US in the war against al Qaeda. Intelligence officials have assembled what they believe to be decisive evidence, from contemporary and subsequent interrogations and intercepted communications, that bin Laden began the battle of Tora Bora inside the cave complex along Afghanistan's mountainous eastern border.[104]
The Washington Post also reported that the CIA unit composed of their special operations paramilitary forces dedicated to capturing Osama was shut down in late 2005.[105]
US and Afghanistan forces raided the mountain caves in Tora Bora between 14–16 August 2007. The military was drawn to the area after receiving intelligence of a pre-Ramadan meeting held by al Qaeda members. After killing dozens of al Qaeda and Taliban members, they did not find either Osama bin Laden or Ayman al Zawahiri.[106]
Immediately after the 9/11 attacks, US government officials named bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects and offered a reward of $25 million for information leading to his capture or death.[3][107] On 13 July 2007, this figure was doubled to $50 million.[108]
The Airline Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association are offering an additional $2 million reward.[109]

Current whereabouts

Claims as to the location of Osama bin Laden have been made since December 2001, although none have been definitively proven and some have placed Osama in different locations during overlapping time periods.
An 11 December 2005, letter from Atiyah Abd al-Rahman to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi indicates that bin Laden and the al-Qaeda leadership were based in the Waziristan region of Pakistan at the time. In the letter, translated by the United States military's Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, "Atiyah" instructs Zarqawi to "send messengers from your end to Waziristan so that they meet with the brothers of the leadership … I am now on a visit to them and I am writing you this letter as I am with them…" Al-Rahman also indicates that bin Laden and al-Qaeda are "weak" and "have many of their own problems." The letter has been deemed authentic by military and counterterrorism officials, according to the Washington Post.[110][111]
In 2009 a research team led by Thomas W. Gillespie and John A. Agnew of UCLA used satellite-aided geographical analysis to pinpoint three compounds in Parachinar as likely hideouts of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.[112]
In March 2009, the New York Daily News reported that the hunt for bin Laden had centered in the Chitral district of Pakistan, including the Kalam Valley. According to the report, author Rohan Gunaratna states that captured Al Qaeda leaders have confirmed that Chitral is where bin Laden is hiding.[113]

Reports of his death

December 2001 Quoting an unnamed Taliban official, the Pakistan Observer reported that Bin Laden died of untreated lung complications and was buried in an unmarked grave in Tora Bora on December 15.[114] This report was picked up by Fox News in the United States on December 26.[115] Also on December 26, the Egyptian newspaper AlWafd - Daily carried a short obituary by a prominent official of the Afghan Taliban, who was allegedly present at the funeral, stating Bin Laden had been buried on or about December 13:[116]
"(Osama bin Laden) suffered serious complications and died a natural, quiet death. He was buried in Tora Bora, a funeral attended by 30 Al Qaeda fighters, close members of his family and friends from the Taliban. By the Wahhabi tradition, no mark was left on the grave"
A videotape was released on December 27 showing a gaunt, unwell Bin Laden, prompting an unnamed White House aide to comment that it could have been made shortly before his death.[114] On CNN, Dr Sanjay Gupta commented that Bin Laden's left arm never moved during the video, suggesting a recent stroke and possibly a symptom of kidney failure.[117] According to Pakistani President Musharraf, Bin Laden required two dialysis machines, which also suggests kidney failure.[118] "I think now, frankly, he is dead for the reason he is a... kidney patient," Musharraf said.[118] If Bin Laden suffered kidney failure, he would require a sterile environment, electricity, and continuous attention by a team of specialists, Gupta said.[117] In April 2002, U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld stated, "We have heard neither hide nor hair of him since, oh, about December in terms of anything hard....We are pretty sure he is either alive or dead."[119] FBI Counterterrorism chief Dale Watson and President Karzai of Afghanistan also expressed the opinion that Bin Laden probably died at this time.[120][121]
April 2005: The Sydney Morning Herald stated "Dr Clive Williams, director of terrorism studies at the Australian National University, says documents provided by an Indian colleague suggested bin Laden died of massive organ failure in April last year … 'It's hard to prove or disprove these things because there hasn't really been anything that allows you to make a judgment one way or the other,' Dr. Williams said."[122]
Late 2005 CIA disbands "Alec Station", unit dedicated to Bin Laden.[123]
September 2006: On 23 September 2006, the French newspaper L'Est Républicain quoted a report from the French secret service (Direction générale de la sécurité extérieure, DGSE) stating that Osama bin Laden had died in Pakistan on 23 August 2006, after contracting a case of typhoid fever that paralyzed his lower limbs.[124] According to the newspaper, Saudi security services first heard of bin Laden's alleged death on 4 September 2006.[125][126][127] The alleged death was reported by the Saudi Arabian secret service to its government, which reported it to the French secret service. The French defense minister Michèle Alliot-Marie expressed her regret that the report had been published while French President Jacques Chirac declared that bin Laden's death had not been confirmed.[128] American authorities also cannot confirm reports of bin Laden's death,[129] with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice saying only, "No comment, and no knowledge."[130] Later, CNN's Nic Robertson said that he had received confirmation from an anonymous Saudi source that the Saudi intelligence community has known for a while that bin Laden has a water-borne illness, but that he had heard no reports that it was specifically typhoid or that he had died.[131]
November 2007: In an interview with political interviewer David Frost taken on 2 November 2007, the Pakistani politician and Pakistan Peoples Party chairwoman Benazir Bhutto claimed that bin Laden had been murdered by Omar Sheikh. During her answer to a question pertaining to the identities of those who had previously attempted her own assassination, Bhutto named Sheikh as a possible suspect while referring to him as "the man who murdered Osama bin Laden." Despite the weight of such a statement, neither Bhutto nor Frost attempted to clarify it during the remainder of the interview.[132] Omar Chatriwala, a journalist for Al Jazeera English, claims that he chose not to pursue the story at the time because he believes Bhutto misspoke, meaning to say Sheikh murdered Daniel Pearl and not Osama Bin Laden.[133] The BBC drew criticism when it rebroadcast the Frost/Bhutto interview on its website, but edited out Bhutto's statement regarding Osama Bin Laden. Later the BBC apologized and replaced the edited version with the complete interview.[134] In October 2007, Bhutto stated in an interview that she would cooperate with the American military in targeting Osama bin Laden.[135]
March 2009: In an essay published in The American Spectator in March 2009, international relations professor Angelo Codevilla of Boston University argued that Osama bin Laden had been dead for many years.[136]
October 2009: An article in the conservative Daily Mail points out that the theory that Bin Laden died in 2001 "is gaining credence among political commentators, respected academics and even terror experts" and notes that the mounting evidence that supports the claim makes the theory "worthy of examination".
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